Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. The population of 44.7 million people faces many economical and social challenges. For example, 1.5 million Ugandans have been infected with the HIV/aids virus. An estimated 21,000 Ugandans die every year owing to aids, one of the highest numbers in the world. The population consist of eighteen different ethnic groups.

Nearly half of the population is aged 14 and below. An average Ugandan woman gives birth to 5.45 children. Life expectancy at birth is around 69 years. Only 2.4% of the population is aged 65 and over. The population growth rate is 3.3%. Over 21% of the Ugandans live below the poverty line.


Uganda’s territory covers 241,038 square kilometers, nearly the size of the US state of Oregon. The capital of Uganda is Kampala. Uganda’s GDP per capita is $2,200 and the economy growth rate is 4.8% (2017). English is the main language, alongside 33 local languages. The main religions are: Protestant (45%), Roman Catholic (39%) and Muslim (14%).

Basic facilities

Most Ugandans live without even basic facilities. This can be seen for example from the houses, from people drinking polluted water and the condition of medical facilities. Most hospitals in Uganda cause peoples’ conditions to worsen rather than to improve.

Though literacy among Ugandans of 15 years and over grew to 77%, only a few have access to real good education. This is one of the reasons why unemployment in Uganda is high: most people simply lack general and professional knowledge. Child labor causes negative effects on the development of children. Around 25% of all children aged 5-14 works. Official unemployment figures for Uganda are not (freely) available, unemployment was estimated at 9 % in 2014.

The statistics used for this article are based on the Uganda country data provided by The World Factbook of the CIA (page last visited on March 20, 2021).